Background and Context
The SNAP-Ed State Plan Guidance requires that breastfeeding activities must be planned and implemented in collaboration with the state WIC agency and state breastfeeding coordinator. The WIC Program should have the lead and primary role in all breastfeeding activities with SNAP-Ed supplementing existing WIC activities. SNAP-Ed can advance breastfeeding in its programming through such activities as working on lactation policies and promotion at low-wage worksites, child care facilities, or other community settings.
The five measures in R8 align with the breastfeeding goals outlined in Healthy People 2020, in maternal, infant, and children’s health:
- Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed ever to 81.9 percent
- At 6 months to 60.6 percent
- At 1 year to 34.1 percent
- Exclusively through 3 months to 46.2 percent
- Exclusively through 6 months to 25.5 percent
R8a. Ever breastfed
R8b. Breastfeeding at 6 months
R8c. Breastfeeding at 12 months
R8d. Exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months
R8e. Exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months
What to Measure
Breastfed at 6 months is defined as breastfeeding to any extent with or without the addition of complementary liquids or solids. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk—no solids, no water, and no other liquids.
FNS also collects state and local WIC agency breastfeeding performance measurements based on program participant data of the number of partially and fully breastfed infants for each WIC state and local agency. Local agencies reporting 30 or fewer total infant participants are excluded.
Surveys and Data Collection Tools
U.S. National Immunization Survey - National and State Breastfeeding Rates [click to expand]
- Was [child] ever breastfed or fed breast milk?
- How old was [child’s name] when [child’s name] completely stopped breastfeeding or being fed breast milk?
- How old was [child’s name] when (he/she) was first fed formula?
- This next question is about the first thing that [child] was given other than breast milk or formula. Please include juice, cow’s milk, sugar water, baby food, or anything else that [child] may have been given, even water. How old was [child’s name] when (he/she) was first fed anything other than breast milk or formula?
FNS Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in WIC [click to expand]
- Fully breastfed
- Partially breastfeed
Additional evaluation tools to measure R8 can be found in the SNAP-Ed Library.
Key Glossary Terms
Additional Resources or Supporting Citations
The CDC Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity’s Data, Trends and Maps online tool – Breastfeeding indicators: https://nccd.cdc.gov/dnpao_dtm/rdPage.aspx?rdReport=DNPAO_DTM.ExploreByTopic&islClass=BF&islTopic=&go=GO