Background and Context
Five Food Groups. Intention or goal setting related to eating from the five food groups throughout the day:
|ST1e.||Low-fat or fat-free dairy|
Messaging. Intent to change or setting goals for any of the following Dietary Guidelines messages:
|ST1f.||Find your healthy eating style and maintain it for a lifetime.|
|ST1g.|| Make half your plate fruits and vegetables—vary your veggies.
|ST1h.|| Make half your plate fruits and vegetables—focus on whole fruits.
|ST1i.||Make half your grains whole grains.
|ST1j.||Move to low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt.
|ST1k.||Vary your protein routine.
|ST1l.||Drink water instead of sugary beverages.|
|ST1m.||Reduce sodium consumption.|
|ST1n.||Cut back on foods high in solid fats and added sugars.|
|ST1o.||Choose vegetable oils instead of butter, and oil-based sauces and dips instead of ones with butter, cream, or cheese.|
What to Measure
Choose at least one outcome measure from the list provided, and select a measurement approach based on the type of survey questions and responses. The example surveys and sample questions listed below can be used to measure post-test only responses of intent or for matched pre- and post-test outcome measurements of intent and goals by age group. The measures reflect the Transtheoretical model (Stages of Change).
For a description on ordinal and nominal outcomes, please see Appendix D.
Surveys and Data Collection Tools
Mark one [ST1h]
- I am not thinking about eating more fruit.
- I am thinking about eating more fruit…planning to start within 6 months.
- I am definitely planning to eat more fruit in the next month.
- I am trying to eat more fruit now.
- I am already eating 3 or more servings of fruit per day.
Mark one [ST1g]
- I am not thinking about eating more vegetables.
- I am thinking about eating more vegetables…planning to start within 6 months.
- I am definitely planning to eat more vegetables in the next month.
- I am trying to eat more vegetables now.
- I am already eating 3 or more servings of vegetables per day.
“Are you thinking about changing your eating behaviors [Insert specific Healthy Eating behavior]?”
“Are you ready to change your eating behaviors [Insert specific Healthy Eating behavior]?”
“Are you in the process of changing your eating behaviors [Insert specific Healthy Eating behavior]?”
“Are you trying to maintain changes in your eating behaviors [Insert specific Healthy Eating behavior]?”
- Yes, I have been for MORE than 6 months.
- Yes, I have been for LESS than 6 months.
- No, but I intend to in the next 30 days.
- No, but I intend to in the next 6 months.
- No, and I do NOT intend to in the next 6 months.
- Choice #1: stage = Maintenance
- Choice #2: stage = Action
- Choice #3: stage = Preparation
- Choice #4: stage = Contemplation
- Choice #5: stage = Precontemplation
- How likely is it that you will eat low fat or fat free dairy products regularly (2-3 servings a day) for the next month?
- How many servings of dairy products do you plan to eat for the next month?
Responses range from never/rarely to more than 3 servings a day. Intention was defined as the summated score of the 2 items.
Adapted from Kim K, Reicks M, Sjoberg S. Applying the theory of planned behavior to predict dairy product consumption by older adults. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2003;35:294-301
CHILDREN & YOUTH
- I don’t think about eating fruit and I don’t eat fruit.
- I don’t think about eating fruit, but eat it because my mom makes me.
- I think about eating fruit but don’t.
- I think about eating fruit but eat them only when my mom reminds me.
- I think about eating fruit and plan to start.
- I try to eat fruit every day.
For vegetables [ST1g]
- I don’t think about eating vegetables and I don’t eat vegetables.
- I don’t think about eating vegetables, but eat them because my mom makes me.
- I think about eating vegetables but don’t.
- I think about eating vegetables, but eat them only when my mom reminds me.
- I think about eating vegetables and plan to start.
- I try to eat vegetables every day.
(Cullen & Bartholmew, et al. 1998)
Additional evaluation tools to measure ST1 can be found in the SNAP-Ed Library.
Key Glossary Terms
Additional Resources or Supporting Citations
Cullen KW, Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Koehly L. Measuring stage of change for fruit and vegetable consumption in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1998;21:241–254.
Savoie M, Mispireta M, Rankin L, Neill K, LeBlanc H, Christofferson D. Intention to Change Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Adult Participants of a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education. Journal Of Nutrition Education & Behavior [serial online]. January 2015;47(1):81-85. Available from: Academic Search Alumni Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 15, 2016.